Varanasi is well connected by air, rail and road. One of the major factors in Varanasi's sustained existence as an inhabited city is its role as an established transportation hub between different cities. Varanasi is served by Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport, which is located approximately 26 km from the city centre in Babatpur. The airport inaugurated a new terminal in 2010, and it was granted international airport status on October 4, 2012. Air India, Buddha Air, Jet Airways, Jet Konnect, and SpiceJet operate flights from Varanasi to Delhi, Gaya, Kathmandu, Khajuraho, Lucknow, Mumbai, and Kolkata.

Over 330,000 passengers pass through the airport each year. Varanasi Junction, commonly known as Varanasi Cantt Railway Station, is Varanasi's largest train station.; more than 80,000 passengers and 100 trains pass through the station each day.

Varanasi lies along National Highway 2, which connects it to Kolkata, Kanpur, Agra and Delhi. National Highway 29 connects Varanasi to Gorakhpur via Ghazipur to the northeast, and National Highway 56 connects Varanasi to Lucknow via Jaunpur and Sultanpur, to the northwest. National Highway 7, the longest National Highway in India, is the most important road connecting Varanasi to southern India, passing through the cities of Hyderabad, Bangalore, Madurai and Kanyakumari.[39] Auto rickshaws and cycle rickshaws are the most widely available public transport within old city. In outer regions of the city, city-buses are common, and taxis are also available.